While a growing number of epidemiological studies have shown a positive association of unhealthy food retail access, with poor diet, greater body weight and odds of obesity, and poor health outcomes, the evidence base remains equivocal. The majority of published research evidence has been cross-sectional and observational, which limits scope for causal inference. Studies have also focussed on broad classes of food outlets (e.g. takeaways, supermarkets, restaurants), with little discrimination between outlet cuisine types, exposure to which may be differentially associated with body weight, and specific dietary and health outcomes
Industries that produce harmful commodities such as high fat, salt or sugar foods and beverages, tobacco and alcohol have been identified as major vectors of behavioural risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The aim of the proposed work is to better understand the nature and extent of such interactions in local government, explore stakeholder views on this issue and the need for guidance, and if justified, develop a set of principles to guide local commercial strategies. While we will explore all harmful commodity industries, the proposed work has a particular focus on the food industry due to the numerous known interactions with local authority, importance to national/local public health priorities and lack of guiding frameworks.
Marketing and branding is effective in encouraging the purchase and consumption of unhealthy food and drink, but the impact of outdoor advertising specifically needs further research (PHE, 2018). Advertising not only influences adult behaviour but also children’s food choices resulting in pressure being put on parents to buy unhealthy foods. This project aims to undertake (i) an impact evaluation and (ii) a process and implementation evaluation of the removal of high fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) advertising on: exposure to HFSS advertising, perceptions of HFSS foods and food purchasing in London.
This is the knowledge exchange (KE) work package for the Places & communities programme (P&C). It is a Research translation/evidence implementation project. It also includes a study designed to test the feasibility of local authorities translating programme findings into policy and practice.
This work package aims to provide the methodological underpinning of natural experiments conducted within the Places & communities theme as well the Children, young people & families and Public mental health themes, and, while doing so, also provide new practical guidance for local and national public health practitioners on when (and when not) to conduct natural experiments, how they could be designed, what different methods are available for analyses, and how the results of these place-based natural experiments should be interpreted. Moreover, the new guidance will link natural experiments to recent developments around systems thinking in public health.
Giving every child the best start in life is a policy priority in England, yet we currently lack understanding of how to support children at a local level. To address this, we are undertaking a programme of research to better understand child health systems at a local level in order to identify opportunities for intervention.
Children in the UK have poor health compared to other Western European countries, and there are large and increasing inequalities in child health, including for mental health and obesity. Over the last 20 years numerous reviews of evidence and policy have repeatedly emphasised the need to provide better support early in children’s lives if we are to have any chance of significantly reducing the inequalities in life chances experienced by people in the UK. To address these challenges, we propose a programme of work with a focus on harnessing data to evaluate systems-based approaches for improving children and young people’s outcomes.
We aim to inform policy and practice to improve child health and reduce inequalities in England by developing a research programme to address two research areas, co-produced with the other programmes and cross-cutting themes.
This work package will focus on the mechanisms by which educational psychosocial and physical environments impact on the mental health of children and young people (ages 45-18). Our focus is on formal, statutory education settings. It will identify interventions or changes within those settings that have the potential to improve mental health outcomes and inequalities for all young people (including, but not limited to, at-risk groups) among this age group. It sits jointly within the Public mental health (PMH) and the Children, young people and families (CYPF) programmes.
Dr Emma Halliday, a Senior Research Fellow at Lancaster University and a member of LiLaC, talks to us about working in public health research.